Citations

Citing Electronic Resources

Prepared by Mrs Rosalind Lee

Plagiarism Warning
Plagiarism is using someone else's work (e.g. phrasing, findings, statistics, graphs, drawings) without acknowledging the source of that information. This includes what is commonly known as "cutting and pasting" information from books,journals or the internet. The passing off of another person, student or group's work, past or present, with or without consent, as one's own, also constitutes plagiarism.

Plagiarism amounts to intellectual theft and is seen as an act of dishonesty. An investigation into the nature, extent and intent of the act will be conducted when there is cause for suspicion of plagiarism. Where clear and convincing evidence exists, disciplinary action will be taken against any group/student found to have committed or aided the offense of plagiarism.

To avoid plagiarism, you must use in-text citations and acknowledge sources used.
The format for citations and references is given below.

IN-TEXT CITATIONS
Adapted from: Dodd, J. (1998). The Ready Reference Handbook: Reading, Revising, Editing (Rev. ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon

The following are examples of how your group should cite the information in the Written Report so that credit can be given to the source. This should be done whether you quote an author directly or express an author's ideas in your own words (paraphrasing).

Quotation
To quote directly or refer to a specific part of a source, include in parentheses ( ) the surname of the author, the year of publication, followed by the page number/s which is/are preceded by p. or pp. ("page" or "pages").

Example:
In its statistical sense used in standardised testing, bias refers to "constant or systematic error as opposed to chance errors" (Anastasi, 1998, p.194).

Paraphrasing
To summarise or paraphrase a source:
  • use a signal phrase containing the author's surname followed by the publication date in parentheses; or
  • include the author's name and date in parentheses at the end of the borrowed material, preceding the full stop.

Examples:
Sanchez (1993) reported that youth from small, often rural schools do not fare as well on standardised tests as youth from urban areas with large economic bases.
OR
Youth from small, often rural schools do not fare as well on standardised tests as youth from urban areas with large economic bases (Sanchez, 1993).


BIBLIOGRAPHY
A bibliography contains the sources that your group has cited in the Written Report as well as all materials each of you have read for the project but did not refer to in the Written Report. Your group may wish to adopt the structure given below:

1. Books
Stucture : Author/Editor (Ed.). (Year of Publication). Title of book. City: Publisher.

Examples:
Lim, J. Y. (1987). The Malay House. Penang: Institut Masyarakat.
Jacobs, H. (Ed.). (1989). Interdisciplinary Curriculum: Design and Implementation. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

2. Chapters in books
Author of chapter. (Year of publication). Title of Chapter in Author/Editor. Title of book. City: Publisher.

Example:
Ackerman, D. B. (1989). Intellectual and practical criteria for successful curriculum integration in Jacobs, H. (Ed.). Interdisciplinary Curriculum: Design and Implementation. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

3. Encyclopedia
Author (if available). (Year of Publication). Title of article. Name of encyclopedia, Volume No. City: Publisher.

Example:
(1989). Acid Rain. Compton's Encyclopedia, Vol 5. Chicago: Compton's Learning.

4. Magazines/Journal/Articles
Author. (Year of Publication). Title of article. Name of magazine or journal, Volume No., page no(s).

Example:
Arie, M. (1986). Protecting yourself from evil e-mail. PC Magazine, 15, p.192.

5. Newspaper Articles
Title of article. (Date of Publication). Name of newspaper, page no(s).

Example:
National Library Building will not be conserved. (May 27, 1999). The Straits Times, p.51.

6. Report
Name of organisation. ((Year of Publication). Title of Report. City of Publication.

Example:
Land Transport Authority. (1996). A World Class Land Transport System. Singapore.

7. Interviews
Name of interviewee, designation, personal interview, date of interview.

Example:
Tan, C.H., Head of Department of Mathematics, National University of Singapore, personal interview, April 3, 1998.

8. CD-ROMs
Author. (Year of Publication or "No Date" if unavailable). Title of work. [Form]. Source or name of vendor (if any).

Example:
Public Utilities Board (1997). The Save Water Challenge. [CD-ROM]. Singapore Public Utilities Board.

9. Audio-video productions
Name of Producer & Name of Director (if available). (Year of Production). Title of work. [Form]. Source or name of vendor (if any).

Example:
Sum, Jacqueline (Producer). (1990). Diary of a Nation. [Videotape]. Singapore: Television Corporation of Singapore.

10. URLs (World Wide Web)
Author. (Year). Title of work. [Form]. Available: full web address. (Date of access).

Example:
Ministry of Education, Singapore (1998). National Education. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.moe.edu.sg/. (October 29, 1998).


OTHER USEFUL LINKS

Web Resource for Academic Writing
Citation Machine is an interactive Web tool designed to assist teachers and students in producing reference citations for crediting information from other people.